It’s Sunday night and Maia is dreading her Monday morning and a supervisor who makes a habit of intimidating and humiliating her in front of her coworkers. This type of harassment plays out for many workers and is an issue that often goes unreported. The harm caused by workplace harassment and violence can affect and involve employees, clients, customers and visitors. Everyone is entitled to protection while on the job.
When workplace harassment and violence is not defined it can go unnoticed and unreported. In some cases it is not immediately obvious to the victim or to coworkers who don’t recognize the signs and can’t see the harm that it is causing. Recognizing and reporting workplace harassment and violence is a step towards prevention.
When we hear about workplace violence there is a tendency to think about physical violence such as hitting, shoving, kicking and threatening behaviour such as shaking fists and breaking or throwing objects. It can also be in the form of arguments, property damage, vandalism, theft, psychological trauma, anger-related incidents, rape, arson and murder. However violence also includes less obvious, but equally destructive, behaviours such as verbal or written threats, rumours, pranks and abuse such as swearing, insults or condescending language intended to cause harm.
According to the Canadian Initiative on Workplace Violence, 1 in 5 violent incidents (including physical assault, sexual assault and robbery) occur in the workplace. Workplace violence is not limited to the incidents that occur within a traditional workplace. It can happen offsite at work functions such as conferences, training, tradeshows, social events, in clients’ homes or away from work (but resulting from work such as a threatening phone call at home from a client).
Harassment is a form of discrimination. It involves any unwanted physical or verbal behaviour that offends or humiliates someone. Generally, harassment is a behaviour that persists over time but serious one-time incidents can also sometimes be considered harassment.
Harassment occurs when someone makes unwelcome remarks or jokes based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, age, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, family status, disability, or pardoned conviction.
These repeated and persistent actions towards an individual can torment, undermine, frustrate or provoke a reaction from that person. It is a behaviour that with persistence, pressures, frightens, intimidates or incapacitates another person. Individually, these behaviours may seem harmless; however it is the combined effect and repetitive characteristic of the behaviours that produce harmful effects. A 2014 Queen's University poll found that 23% of Canadians have experienced workplace harassment.
Sexual harassment is any conduct, comment, gesture or contact of a sexual nature likely to cause offence or humiliation or that might, on reasonable grounds, be perceived as placing a condition of a sexual nature on employment or any opportunity for training or promotion.
A common occurrence not widely reported
Results from a 2014 Angus Reid survey on sexual harassment in Canada revealed that 3 in 10 Canadians said that they had been sexually harassed at work, but that very few reported this to their employers. The single biggest reason for not reporting was that they “preferred to deal with it on their own”. Other reasons for not reporting included embarrassment, not sure it was harassment, fear it would hurt their career, and the feeling that the issue was too minor.
Three-quarters of those Canadians surveyed said that the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace is an important issue and should get more attention. The same number also believed that it is widespread or at least a common occurrence.
Workplaces at risk
The type of work you do, where you work and the kind of interactions you have can put you at increased risk for violence and harassment. Some examples of high risk work include:
- working with the public
- handling money, valuables or prescription drugs
- carrying out inspection or enforcement duties
- providing healthcare
- working with unstable or volatile persons
- working where alcohol is served
- working alone or in small numbers, in community-based settings, in taxis or buses
- working during intense organizational change such as during a strike or downsizing
You are at high risk from workplace violence if you are a healthcare worker, correctional officer, social services employee, teacher, municipal housing inspector, public works employee or retail employee.
The human and financial costs of workplace harassment and violence are great.
First and foremost, employees experiencing harassment and violence can be affected physically and psychologically. Everyone reacts to these incidents in their own unique way, but common responses can range from low morale and productivity at work, changes in eating and sleeping patterns, denial, panic and anxiety, depression, fear, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and thoughts of suicide.
Organizations are also impacted. Decreased productivity, low morale, increased absenteeism and healthcare costs, and potential legal expenses can impact organizations that don’t take steps to prevent harassment and violence.
It is the legal duty of an employer to protect the mental and physical health of employees, and this includes protection from harassment and violence. Many provincial occupational health and safety acts now include harm to psychological well-being in the definition of harassment. Managers must not tolerate any violent behaviour including aggression, harassment or threats of violence. Violent or aggressive behaviours can hurt the mental health of everyone in the organization and create a psychologically unsafe work environment where employees are fearful and anxious.
Commitment from management is one of the most important parts of any workplace violence prevention program. This commitment is best communicated in a written policy that includes a system by which employees can report their experiences of harassment and violence.
Learning to recognize workplace violence for what it is is an important first step.
Most Canadian jurisdictions have a "general duty provision" in their Occupational Health & Safety legislation, which requires employers to take all reasonable precautions to protect the health and safety of employees. More information on this topic is available in the OSH Answers fact sheet OH&S Legislation - Due Diligence. This provision includes protecting employees from a known risk of workplace violence.
Jurisdictions in Canada that have specific workplace violence prevention regulations include Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador and Prince Edward Island, as well as Canadian federally regulated workplaces (for those organizations that fall under the Canada Labour Code, Part II). Quebec has legislation regarding "psychological harassment", which may include forms of workplace violence. Many jurisdictions also have working alone regulations, which may have some implications for workplace violence prevention. Ontario also has specific harassment legislation.
- Violence in the Workplace fact sheet, CCOHS
- Glenn French: Workplace Violence podcast, CCOHS
- Is it Harassment? A Tool to Guide Employees, Government of Canada
- Bullying and Harassment in the Workplace infographic, CCOHS
- Violence in the Workplace: Awareness, free e-course, CCOHS
- See Signs of Violence in the Workplace? poster, CCOHS
- Bullying is Not Part of the Job poster, CCOHS
- Developing Your Workplace Violence and Harassment Program in Ontario e-course, CCOHS
- Violence in the Workplace: Establish a Prevention Program e-course, CCOHS
- Violence in the Workplace: Recognize the Risk and Take Action e-course, CCOHS
- Violence in the Workplace Prevention Guide publication, CCOHS
Tips & Tools
Hazards can exist under desks, on the plant floor, in the air and pretty much any place people work. Inspecting the workplace regularly for hazards is an essential part of a health and safety program. Inspections help to prevent injuries and illnesses by identifying and eliminating actual and potential hazards.
There's more to a workplace inspection than just looking around. It involves listening to people's concerns, fully understanding jobs and tasks, determining the underlying causes of hazards, monitoring controls, and recommending corrective action. Regular, thorough, workplace inspections by a trained inspection team can help keep workers healthy and safe.
What the inspection should examine
An inspection must examine who, what, where, when and how, and include a careful look at all workplace elements - the environment, the equipment and the process. Particular attention should be given to equipment and items most likely to develop unsafe or unhealthy conditions because of stress, wear, impact, vibration, heat, corrosion, chemical reaction or misuse.
Workplace inspectors should look for biological (e.g. viruses and mould), chemical (e.g. cleaners, adhesives, paints), ergonomic (e.g. repetitive and forceful movements, and computer workstations), safety (e.g. inadequate machine guards), and physical hazards (e.g. noise, heat, and cold).
Information needed for the inspection report
The information needed to complete the inspection report is very detailed. Inspectors will need a diagram of the work area, a complete inventory of equipment and chemicals used, as well as checklists to help clarify inspection responsibilities and provide a record of inspection activities.
Conducting the inspection
Every workplace should have a schedule detailing when inspections will take place and in which areas, who conducts the inspections, and how detailed the inspections will be. The frequency of planned formal inspections may be set in your legislation. High hazard or high risk areas should receive extra attention.
While conducting inspections inspectors must wear personal protective equipment (PPE) where required, and should follow these basic principles:
- DRAW attention to the presence of any immediate danger--other items can await the final report.
- SHUT DOWN AND "LOCK OUT" any hazardous items that cannot be brought to a safe operating standard until repaired.
- LOOK up, down, around and inside. Be methodical and thorough. Do not spoil the inspection with a "once-over-lightly" approach.
- DESCRIBE clearly each hazard and its exact location in your rough notes. Allow "on-the-spot" recording of all findings before they are forgotten.
- ASK questions, but do not unnecessarily disrupt work activities.
- CONSIDER the static (stop position) and dynamic (in motion) conditions of the item you are inspecting. If a machine is shut down, consider postponing the inspection until it is functioning again.
- DISCUSS as a group, "Can any problem, hazard or accident generate from this situation when looking at the equipment, the process or the environment?" Determine what corrections or controls are appropriate.
- PHOTOGRAPH a particular situation if you are unable to clearly describe or sketch it.
- DO NOT OPERATE equipment. Ask the operator for a demonstration. If the operator of any piece of equipment does not know what dangers may be present, this is cause for concern. Never ignore any item because you do not have knowledge to make an accurate judgement of safety.
- DO NOT TRY to detect all hazards simply by relying on your senses or by looking at them during the inspection. You may have to monitor equipment to measure the levels of exposure to chemicals, noise, radiation or biological agents.
What’s in the final inspection report
To start, all unfinished items from the previous report should be carried over to the new report for follow up. The new report should specify the exact location of each hazard, a detailed description of the problem, the recommended corrective action, and a definite date for correction. A priority level (e.g. major, serious, minor) should be assigned to each hazard to indicate the urgency of the corrective action required.
Follow-up and monitoring
Once an inspection is completed, it’s not over. The health and safety committee should review the reports to recommend corrective action where needed and then review the progress of the recommendations. This will help in identifying trends to maintain an effective health and safety program.
- Effective workplace inspections fact sheet,
- Inspection Checklist - Sample Checklist for Chemical or Product Inventory fact sheet,
- Inspection Checklist - Sample Checklist for Outdoor Areas fact sheet,
- Inspection Checklists - General Information fact sheet,
- Inspection Checklists - Sample Checklist for Manufacturing Facilities fact sheet,
- Inspection Checklists - Sample Checklist for Offices fact sheet,
- Health and Safety Committees Reference Guide publication,
- Learning by Committee: Workplace Inspections webinar,
Health and Safety To Go
This month’s Health and Safety To Go! podcasts feature the new episode Understanding Workplace Concussions and an encore presentation of The Importance of Emergency Eyewash and Showers.
Feature Podcast: Understanding Workplace Concussions
Concussions can occur anywhere, including in the workplace. Statistics reveal that there has been an increase in the number of time loss claims for work-related concussions. This podcast provides tips and information to help understand concussions and how to manage them in the workplace.
The podcast runs 6:00 minutes. Listen to the podcast now.
Encore Podcast: The Importance of Emergency Eyewash and Showers
Anyone who works with hazardous chemicals knows they can work safely and avoid injury if they follow the appropriate safety precautions. However, accidents can happen, and if and when a corrosive chemical gets into your eyes or on your face or body, the first 10 to 15 seconds are the most critical for preventing injury. If the treatment is delayed, even for a few seconds, serious injury may be caused. That's where emergency showers and eyewash stations come in, providing workers with on-the-spot decontamination and the ability to flush hazardous substances away. This podcast discusses the importance of emergency showers and eyewash stations, and proper procedures in using them.
The podcast runs 3:33 minutes. Listen to the podcast now.
CCOHS produces free monthly podcasts on a wide variety of topics designed to keep you current with information, tips, and insights into the health, safety, and well-being of working Canadians. You can download the audio segment to your computer or MP3 player and listen to it at your own convenience... or on the go!
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador employees now have access to 31 CCOHS e-courses within their learning management system.
In January 2017 the Newfoundland and Labrador Government completed an agreement with CCOHS for a one year arrangement.
To meet health and safety compliance requirements for provincial government employees the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador approached CCOHS because of the breadth of coverage of the courses.
See all CCOHS e-courses.
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The Health and Safety Report, a free monthly newsletter produced by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), provides information, advice, and resources that help support a safe and healthy work environment and the total well being of workers.
© 2017, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
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