OSH Answers Fact Sheets
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See UN Number.
Natural ventilation is a type of general ventilation which depends on natural instead of mechanical means for air movement. Natural ventilation can depend on the wind or the difference in temperature from one area to another to move air through a building. Therefore, it is unpredictable and unreliable. (See also Local Exhaust Ventilation, Mechanical Ventilation and Ventilation.)
Nephrotoxins are agents that can cause toxic effects on the kidney.
Neurotoxins are agents that can cause toxic effects on the nervous system.
NFPA stands for National Fire Protection Association (U.S.).
NIOSH stands for National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH is a branch of the United States government which undertakes research and develops occupational health and safety standards.
NOEL stands for No Observable Effect Level.
NOS stands for Not Otherwise Specified.
NTP stands for National Toxicology Program. This program is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The NTP has a large program for testing the potential carcinogenicity of chemicals. It also does many other types of studies on short-term and long-term health effects.
Nuisance Dust, Nuisance Particulate
Nuisance particulate is a term used historically by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) to describe airborne materials (solids and liquids) which have little harmful effect on the lungs and do not produce significant disease or harmful effects when exposures are kept under reasonable control. Nuisance particulates may also be called nuisance dusts. High levels of nuisance particulates in the air may reduce visibility and can get into the eyes, ears and nose. Removal of this material by washing or rubbing may cause irritation. (Also see Particulates Not Otherwise Classified)
OC stands for open cup.
The odour threshold is the lowest concentration of a chemical in air that is detectable by smell. The odour threshold should only be regarded as an estimate. This is because odour thresholds are commonly determined under controlled laboratory conditions using people trained in odour recognition.
As well, in the workplace, the ability to detect the odour of a chemical varies from person to person and depends on conditions such as the presence of other odorous materials.
Odour cannot be used as a warning of unsafe conditions since workers may become used to the smell (adaptation), or the chemical may numb the sense of smell, a process called olfactory fatigue. However, if the odour threshold for a chemical is well below its exposure limit, odour can be used to warn of a problem with your respirator.
OECD stands for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The OECD is an international agency which supports programs designed to facilitate trade and development.
The OECD has published "Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals." These guidelines contain recommended procedures for testing chemicals for toxic and environmental effects and for determining physical and chemical properties.
OEL stands for Occupational Exposure Limit. (See Exposure Limits for a general explanation.)
OSHA stands for Occupational Safety and Health Administration. It is the branch of the United States government which sets and enforces occupational health and safety regulations. For example, OSHA sets the legal exposure limits in the United States, which are called Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). OSHA also specifies what information must be given on labels and Material Safety Data Sheets for materials which have been classified as hazardous using their criteria.
Oxidizing Agent, Oxidizing Material
An oxidizing agent or material gives up oxygen easily or can readily oxidize other materials. Examples of oxidizing agents are oxygen, chlorine and peroxide compounds. These chemicals will support a fire and are highly reactive. Under the Canadian Controlled Products Regulations (CPR) and under the U.S. OSHA Hazcom Standard, there are specific criteria for the classification of materials as oxidizing materials. The CPR is part of the national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
Particulates Not Otherwise Classified (PNOC)
Particulates not otherwise classified is a term defined by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). It is used to describe particulates for which there is no evidence of specific toxic effects such as fibrosis or systemic effects. These material are not to be considered inert, however, and can produce general toxic effects depending on the airborne concentration.
See Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution.
PEL stands for Permissible Exposure Limit. PELs are legal limits in the United States set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (See Exposure Limits for a general explanation.)
Pensky-Martens Closed Cup
Pensky-Martens Closed Cup (PMCC) is a specific method for determining flash points.
Personal Protective Equipment
Personal protective equipment is clothing or devices worn to help isolate a person from direct exposure to a hazardous material or situation. Recommended personal protective equipment is often listed on an MSDS. This can include protective clothing, respiratory protection and eye protection.
The use of personal protective equipment is the least preferred method of protection from hazardous exposures. It can be unreliable and, if it fails, the person can be left completely unprotected. This is why engineering controls are preferred. Sometimes, personal protective equipment may be needed along with engineering controls. For example, a ventilation system (an engineering control) reduces the inhalation hazard of a chemical, while gloves and an apron (personal protective equipment) reduce skin contact. In addition, personal protective equipment can be an important means of protection when engineering controls are not practical: for example, during an emergency or other temporary conditions such as maintenance operations.
The pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity (alkalinity) of a material when dissolved in water. It is expressed on a scale from 0 to 14. Roughly, pH can be divided into the following ranges:
- pH 0 - 2 Strongly acidic
- pH 3 - 5 Weakly acidic
- pH 6 - 8 Neutral
- pH 9 - 11 Weakly basic
- pH 12 - 14 Strongly basic
Under the Canadian Controlled Products Regulations, materials with pH values of 0-2 or 11.5-14 may be classified corrosive. Corrosive materials must be stored and handled with great care.
See UN Number.
See Pensky-Martens Closed Cup
PNS stands for peripheral nervous system.
Poisonous And Infectious Material
Under the Canadian Controlled Products Regulations, a Poisonous and Infectious Material is any material which meets the criteria for a Material Causing Immediate and Serious Toxic Effects, a Material Causing Other Toxic Effects, or a Biohazardous Infectious Material.
A polymer is a natural or man-made material formed by combining units, called monomers, into long chains. The word polymer means many parts. Examples of polymers are starch (which has many sugar units), polyethylene (which has many ethylene units) and polystyrene (which has many styrene units).
Most man-made polymers have low toxicity, low flammability and low chemical reactivity. In these ways, polymers tend to be less hazardous than the chemicals (monomers) from which they are made.
Polymerization is the process of forming a polymer by combining large numbers of chemical units or monomers into long chains. Polymerization can be used to make some useful materials. However, uncontrolled polymerization can be extremely hazardous. Some polymerization processes can release considerable heat, can generate enough pressure to burst a container or can be explosive. Some chemicals can polymerize on their own without warning. Others can polymerize upon contact with water, air or other common chemicals. Inhibitors are normally added to products to reduce or eliminate the possibility of uncontrolled polymerization.
ppb stands for parts per billion.
The abbreviation ppm stands for parts per million. It is a common unit of concentration of gases or vapour in air. For example, 1 ppm of a gas means that 1 unit of the gas is present for every 1 million units of air. One ppm is the same as 1 minute in 2 years or 1 penny in $10,000.00, or 1 inch in 16 miles.
As used on a Material Safety Data Sheet, process enclosure means that the operation in which the material is used is completely enclosed. A physical barrier separates the worker from the potential health or fire hazard. Process enclosure is usually recommended if the material is very toxic or flammable.
PSI stands for pounds per square inch and is a unit of pressure.
Pyrophoric chemicals are defined in the U.S. OSHA Hazcom Standard as chemicals which will ignite spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130 degrees F (54.4 degrees C) or below. Regulatory definitions in other jurisdictions may differ.
RCRA stands for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (U.S.) It is a statute regulating waste that is administered by the U.S. EPA.
Reactive Flammable Material
Under the Canadian Controlled Products Regulations, a reactive flammable material is a material which is a dangerous fire risk because it can react readily with air or water. This category includes any material which:
- is spontaneously combustible, that is, a material which can react with air until enough heat builds up that it begins to burn;
- can react vigorously with air under normal conditions without actually catching fire;
- gives off dangerous quantities of flammable gas on reaction with water; or
- becomes spontaneously combustible when it contacts water or water vapour.
Reactive flammable materials must be kept dry and isolated from oxygen (in air) or other oxidizing agents. Therefore, they are often stored and handled in an atmosphere of unreactive gas, such as nitrogen or argon.
The Controlled Products Regulations are part of the national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
See Specific Gravity.
Reproductive effects are problems in the reproductive process which may be caused by a substance. Possible reproductive effects include reduced fertility in the male or female, menstrual changes, miscarriage, embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, teratogenicity, or harmful effects to the nursing infant from chemicals in breast milk.
Most chemicals can cause reproductive effects if there is an extremely high exposure. In these cases, the exposed person would experience other noticeable signs and symptoms caused by the exposure. These signs and symptoms act as a warning of toxicity. Chemicals which cause reproductive effects in the absence of other significant harmful effects are regarded as true reproductive hazards. Very few workplace chemicals are known to be true reproductive hazards.
The Canadian Controlled Products Regulations describe technical criteria for identifying materials which have reproductive toxicity. These criteria refer to adverse effects on fertility. (See also Reproductive Effects.) Other jurisdictions likely have corresponding criteria, which may differ.
The Controlled Products Regulations are part of the national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). Under the U.S. OSHA HAZCOM Standard, Reproductive Toxicity is a Target Organ Effect, and includes mutagens, embryotoxins, teratogens and reproductive toxins.
RQ stands for reportable quantity.
RTECS stands for Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
SARA stands for Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (U.S.).
SEC stands for second or section.
Sensitization is the development, over time, of an allergic reaction to a chemical. The chemical may cause a mild response on the first few exposures but, as the allergy develops, the response becomes worse with subsequent exposures. Eventually, even short exposures to low concentrations can cause a very severe reaction.
There are two different types of occupational sensitization: skin and respiratory. Typical symptoms of skin sensitivity are swelling, redness, itching, pain, and blistering. Sensitization of the respiratory system may result in symptoms similar to a severe asthmatic attack. These symptoms include wheezing, difficulty in breathing, chest tightness, coughing and shortness of breath.
The Canadian Controlled Products Regulations [part of the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)] and the U.S. OSHA HAZCOM Standard describe technical criteria for identifying materials which are respiratory tract sensitizers or skin sensitizers.
See Exposure Limits for a general explanation.
Solubility is the ability of a material to dissolve in water or another liquid. Solubility may be expressed as a ratio or may be described using words such as insoluble, very soluble or miscible.
Often, on a Material Safety Data Sheet, the "Solubility" section describes solubility in water since water is the single most important industrial solvent. Solubility information is useful for planning spill clean-up and fire fighting procedures.
A solvent is a material, usually a liquid, which is capable of dissolving another chemical. Chemicals commonly called solvents can dissolve many different chemicals. Examples of common solvents are water, ethanol, acetone, hexane and toluene.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a material to the density of water. The density of water is about 1 gram per cubic centimetre (g/cc). Materials which are lighter than water (specific gravity less than 1.0) will float. Most materials have specific gravities exceeding 1.0, which means they are heavier than water and so will sink. Knowing the specific gravity is important for planning spill clean-up and fire fighting procedures. For example, a light flammable liquid such as gasoline may spread and, if ignited, burn on top of a water surface.
Stability is the ability of a material to remain unchanged in the presence of heat, moisture or air. An unstable material may decompose, polymerize, burn or explode under normal environmental conditions. Any indication that the material is unstable gives warning that special handling and storage precautions may be necessary.
STEL stands for Short-Term Exposure Limit. (See Exposure Limits for a general explanation.)
STP stands for Standard Temperature and Pressure (0 degrees Celsius and one atmosphere pressure).
Synergism means that exposure to more than one chemical can result in health effects greater than expected when the effects of exposure to each chemical are added together. Very simply, it is like saying 1 + 1 = 3. When chemicals are synergistic, the potential hazards of the chemicals should be re-evaluated, taking their synergistic properties into consideration.
Synonyms are alternative names for the same chemical. For example, methanol and methyl hydrate are synonyms for methyl alcohol. Synonyms may help in locating additional information on a chemical.
Target Organ Effects
Under the U.S. OSHA HAZCOM Standard, chemicals are identified as having target organ effects if there is statistically significant evidence of an acute or chronic health effect determined in a scientifically valid study. The following agents would be included (note, the list is not all-inclusive): hepatotoxins, agents which damage the lungs (including irritants), agents which act on the hematopoietic system, neurotoxins, nephrotoxins, reproductive toxins (mutagens, embryotoxins, teratogens and reproductive toxins), cutaneous hazards (chemicals which affect the dermal layer of the skin) and eye hazards (chemicals which affect the eye or visual capacity). There are no maximum dose criteria for chronic toxicity studies, as specified in the Canadian Controlled Products Regulations. The Controlled Products Regulations are part of the national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
TCC stands for Tagliabue closed cup; a standard method of determining flash points. Generally, this appears in abbreviated form as Tag closed cup.
TCLO stands for lowest toxic airborne concentration tested (see also LCLO and LC50).
TDG stands for Transportation of Dangerous Goods. In Canada, the transportation of potentially hazardous materials is regulated under the federal Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act and Regulations which are administered by Transport Canada. The TDG Act and Regulations set out criteria for the classification of materials as dangerous goods and state how these materials must be packaged and shipped.
TDG Flammability Classification
Under the Canadian TDG Act and Regulations, chemicals are classified as flammable materials if they have certain properties. Consult the regulation for detailed information.
TDLO stands for lowest toxic dose tested (see also LDLO and LD50).
Teratogen, Teratogenic, Teratogenicity
A teratogen is a substance which can cause birth defects. Teratogenic means able to cause birth defects. Teratogenicity is the ability of a chemical to cause birth defects. Teratogenicity results from a harmful effect to the embryo or the fetus/foetus.
The Canadian Controlled Products Regulations describe technical criteria for identifying materials which have teratogenicity and embryotoxicity. (See also Reproductive Effects.) Other jurisdictions may also have defined specific criteria. The Controlled Products Regulations are part of the national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
Under the U.S. OSHA HAZCOM Standard, materials which have teratogenic effects are included under reproductive Target Organ Effects.
Thermal Decomposition Products
Thermal decomposition products are chemicals which may be formed when the material is heated but does not burn. These chemicals may be toxic, flammable or have other hazards. The chemicals released and their amounts vary depending upon conditions such as the temperature. The thermal decomposition products may be quite different from the chemicals formed by burning the same material (hazardous combustion products). It is important to know which chemicals are formed by thermal decomposition because this information is used to plan ventilation requirements for processes where a material may be heated.
TLM stands for Threshold Limit, median (aquatic toxicity rating).
TLV stands for Threshold Limit Value. It is the occupational exposure limit established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). TLV is a registered trademark of ACGIH. TLVs are adopted by some governments as their legal limits. (See Exposure Limits for a general explanation.)
TLV-C stands for the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling. See also TLV.
TOC stands for Tagliabue open cup; a standard method of determining flash points. Generally, this appears in abbreviated form as Tag open cup.
Toxic means able to cause harmful health effects. Toxicity is the ability of a substance to cause harmful health effects. Descriptions of toxicity (e.g. low, moderate, severe, etc.) depend on the amount needed to cause an effect or the severity of the effect.
Under the Canadian Controlled Products Regulations and the U.S. OSHA HAZCOM Standard, there are specific technical criteria for identifying a material as toxic for the purpose of each regulation. (See also Very Toxic and Highly Toxic.) The Controlled Products Regulations are part of the national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS).
A trade name is the name under which a product is commercially known. Some materials are sold under common names, such as Stoddard solvent or degreaser, or internationally recognized trade names, like Varsol. Trade names are sometimes identified by symbols such as (R) or (TM).
TSCA stands for Toxic Substances Control Act (U.S.).
TWA stands for Time-Weighted Average. (See Exposure Limits for a general explanation.)
See Explosive Limits.
See Explosive Limits.
uG stands for microgram, a unit of mass.
UN stands for United Nations. See also UN Number.
UN number stands for United Nations number. The UN number is a four-digit number assigned to a potentially hazardous material (such as gasoline, UN 1203) or class of materials (such as corrosive liquids, UN 1760). These numbers are used by firefighters and other emergency response personnel for identification of materials during transportation emergencies. UN (United Nations) numbers are internationally recognized. NA (North American) numbers are used only for shipments within Canada and the United States. PINs (Product Identification Numbers) are used in Canada. UN, NA and PIN numbers have the same uses.
Under the U.S. OSHA HAZCOM standard, a chemical is identified as unstable (reactive) if in the pure state, or as produced or transported, it will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of shock, pressure or temperature.
Upper Explosion Limit
See Explosive Limits.
Upper Explosive Limit
See Explosive Limits.
Upper Flammable Limit
See Explosive Limits.
A vapour is the gaseous form of a material which is normally solid or liquid at room temperature and pressure. Evaporation is the process by which a liquid is changed into a vapour. Sublimation is the process by which a solid is changed directly into the vapour state.
Vapour density is the weight per unit volume of a pure gas or vapour. The vapour density is commonly given as the ratio of the density of the gas or vapour to the density of air. The density of air is given a value of 1. Light gases (density less than 1) such as helium rise in air. If there is inadequate ventilation, heavy gases and vapours (density greater than 1) can accumulate in low-lying areas such as pits and along floors.
Vapour pressure is a measure of the tendency of a material to form a vapour. The higher the vapour pressure, the higher the potential vapour concentration. In general, a material with a high vapour pressure is more likely to be an inhalation or fire hazard than a similar material with a lower vapour pressure.
Ventilation is the movement of air. One of the main purposes of ventilation is to remove contaminated air from the workplace. There are several different kinds of ventilation. (See General Ventilation, Local Exhaust Ventilation, Mechanical Ventilation and Natural Ventilation.)
Under the Canadian Controlled Products Regulations, there are specific technical criteria for identifying a very toxic material. There are specific criteria for short-term lethality, long-term toxicity, teratogenicity and embryotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, respiratory sensitization and mutagenicity. (See also Toxic.) The Controlled Products Regulations are part of the national Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS). Under the US OSHA Hazcom Standard, the corresponding term is "highly toxic", which has a specific definition.
VOC stands for Volatile Organic Compound.
Volatile means a material can evaporate. Volatility is the ability of a material to evaporate. The term volatile is commonly understood to mean that a material evaporates easily.
On an MSDS, volatility is commonly expressed as the "% volatile." The percent volatile can vary from 0% (none of the material will evaporate) to 100% (all of the material will evaporate if given enough time).
If a product contains volatile ingredients, there may be a need for ventilation and other precautions to control vapour concentrations.
Under the U.S. OSHA HAZCOM standard, a chemical is identified as water reactive if it reacts with water to release a gas that is either flammable or presents a health hazard.
WHMIS stands for Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. It is a Canadian program designed to protect workers by providing them and their employers with vital information about hazardous materials. The following are key features of WHMIS:
- Criteria to identify controlled products and to provide information about them in the workplace;
- A cautionary labelling system for containers of controlled products;
- Requirements for the disclosure of information by the use of material safety data sheets;
- Worker education programs;
- A mechanism to protect trade secrets.
WHMIS is implemented by a series of federal, provincial and territorial acts and regulations. One which is used frequently in preparing Material Safety Data Sheets is the Controlled Products Regulations (CPR).
Although every effort is made to ensure the accuracy, currency and completeness of the information, CCOHS does not guarantee, warrant, represent or undertake that the information provided is correct, accurate or current. CCOHS is not liable for any loss, claim, or demand arising directly or indirectly from any use or reliance upon the information.