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CAS Registry No.: 1310-73-2
Other Names: Caustic soda, Lye
Main Uses: Manufacture of other chemicals, and used in many manufacturing processes.
Appearance: Colourless - white solid.
Canadian TDG: UN1823, UN1824
E - Corrosive
Emergency Overview: Colourless - white solid. Odourless. Will not burn. Highly Reactive. Incompatible with many common chemicals. Reacts violently with water. Contact with metals liberates flammable hydrogen gas. EXTREMELY CORROSIVE. Causes severe skin burns and eye damage.
Main Routes of Exposure: Skin contact. Eye contact.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): Not specifically designated.
American Conference for Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH): Not specifically designated.
Inhalation: Move victim to fresh air. Call a Poison Centre or doctor if the victim feels unwell.
Skin Contact: Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing if necessary. Quickly take off contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 60 minutes. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If it can be done safely, continue flushing during transport to hospital. Immediately call a Poison Centre or doctor. Treatment is urgently required. Transport to a hospital. Thoroughly clean clothing, shoes and leather goods before reuse or dispose of safely.
Eye Contact: Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush chemical off the face. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 60 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay flushing or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately call a Poison Centre or doctor. Treatment is urgently required. Transport to a hospital.
Ingestion: Have victim rinse mouth with water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately call a Poison Centre or doctor. Treatment is urgently required. Transport to a hospital.
First Aid Comments: All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the chemical and its conditions of use in the workplace.
Flammable Properties: Does not burn.
Suitable Extinguishing Media: Not combustible. Use extinguishing agent suitable for surrounding fire
Unsuitable Extinguishing Media: Carbon dioxide.
Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical: Contact with water causes violent frothing and spattering. Reacts with metals to produce highly flammable hydrogen gas. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated releasing contents. Toxic sodium oxide fumes can be generated at high temperatures.
Personal Precautions: Evacuate the area immediately. Isolate the hazard area. Keep out unnecessary and unprotected personnel. Use personal protective equipment as required. Remove or isolate incompatible materials as well as other hazardous materials.
Methods for Containment and Clean-up: Contain and soak up spill with absorbent that does not react with spilled product. Shovel or sweep dry sodium hydroxide for recycling or disposal. Flush spill area. Dike spilled product to prevent runoff.
Handling: Before handling, it is important that all engineering controls are operating and that protective equipment requirements and personal hygiene measures are being followed. Only trained personnel should work with this product. Immediately report leaks, spills or failures of the safety equipment (e.g. ventilation system). Avoid generating vapours or mists. Avoid generating dusts. Use corrosion-resistant tools and equipment. Never add water to a corrosive. Always add corrosives slowly to COLD water. Never reuse empty containers, even if they appear to be clean. Keep containers tightly closed when not in use or empty.
Storage: Store in an area that is: cool, dry, well-ventilated, separate from incompatible materials. Keep amount in storage to a minimum. Store in the original, labelled, shipping container. Vent drums to prevent pressure buildup. Do not handle swollen drums. Get expert advice. Empty containers may contain hazardous residue. Store separately. Keep closed. Contain spills or leaks by storing containers in trays made from compatible materials.
ACGIH® TLV® - STEL [C]: 2 mg/m3 C
Exposure Guideline Comments: TLV® = Threshold Limit Value. STEL = Short-term Exposure Limit. C = Ceiling limit.
NOTE: In many (but not all) Canadian jurisdictions, the exposure limits are similar to the ACGIH® TLVs®. Since legislation varies by jurisdiction, contact your local jurisdiction for exact details. A list is available in the OSH Answers on Canadian Governmental Occupational Health & Safety Departments.
A list of which acts and regulations that cover exposure limits to chemical and biological agents is available on our website. Please note that while you can see the list of legislation for free, you will need a subscription to view the actual documentation.
Engineering Controls: Use a local exhaust ventilation and enclosure, if necessary, to control amount in the air. It may be necessary to use stringent control measures such as process enclosure to prevent product release into the workplace. Use a corrosion-resistant exhaust ventilation system separate from other ventilation systems. Exhaust directly to the outside, taking any necessary precautions for environmental protection.
Eye/Face Protection: Wear chemical safety goggles. A face shield (with safety goggles) may also be necessary.
Skin Protection: Wear chemical protective clothing e.g. gloves, aprons, boots. Suitable materials include: butyl rubber, natural rubber, neoprene rubber, nitrile rubber, polyvinyl chloride, Viton®, Viton®/butyl rubber, Barrier® - PE/PA/PE, Silver Shield® - PE/EVAL/PE, Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS, Saranex®™, Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder® CSM, Tychem® TK. Recommendations are NOT valid for very thin natural rubber, neoprene rubber, nitrile rubber, and PVC gloves (0.3 mm or less).
Up to 10 mg/m3:
(APF = 25) Any supplied-air respirator operated in a continuous-flow mode*; OR Any powered air-purifying respirator with a high-efficiency particulate filter*.
(APF = 50) Any air-purifying, full-facepiece respirator with an N100, R100, or P100 filter; OR Any self-contained breathing apparatus with a full facepiece; OR Any supplied-air respirator with a full facepiece.
*Causes eye irritation or damage; eye protection needed.
APF = Assigned Protection Factor
Recommendations apply only to National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) approved respirators. Refer to the NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards for more information.