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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is similar to visible light in all physical aspects, except that it does not enable us to see things. The light that enables us to see things is referred to as visible light and is composed of the colours we see in a rainbow. The ultraviolet region starts right after the violet end of the rainbow.
In scientific terms, UV radiation is electromagnetic radiation just like visible light, radar signals and radio broadcast signals (see Figure 1). Electromagnetic radiation is transmitted in the form of waves. The waves can be described by their wavelength or frequency and their amplitude (the strength or intensity of the wave). Wavelength is the length of one complete wave cycle. For radiation in the UV region of the spectrum, wavelengths are measured in nanometers (nm), where 1 nm = one millionth of a millimetre.
Different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation cause different types of effects on people. For example, gamma rays are used in cancer therapy to kill cancerous cells and infrared light can be used to keep you warm.
UV radiation has shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) compared to visible light but has longer wavelengths (lower frequencies) compared to X-rays. UV radiation is divided into three wavelength ranges:
Table 1 summarizes the general features of each type.
Ultraviolet Radiation Type
Ultraviolet A radiation UVA, long-wave UV)
-not filtered out in the atmosphere
Ultraviolet B radiation
-some filtered out in the atmosphere by the ozone layer
Ultraviolet C radiation
-filtered out in the atmosphere by the ozone layer before reaching earth
Sunlight is the greatest source of UV radiation. Man-made ultraviolet sources include several types of UV lamps, arc welding, and mercury vapour lamps.
UV radiation is widely used in industrial processes and in medical and dental practices for a variety of purposes, such as killing bacteria, creating fluorescent effects, curing inks and resins, phototherapy and suntanning. Different UV wavelengths and intensities are used for different purposes.
Table 2 gives some examples of occupations with a potential risk of ultraviolet exposure. Table 3 gives examples of devices which employ UV radiation.
|Table 2 |
Workers at Potential Risk from Exposure to UV Radiation
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|Table 3 |
Some Devices Emitting UV Radiation
Black light lamps
Carbon, xenon and other arcs
Dental polymerizing equipment
Hydrogen and deuterium lamps
Ultraviolet nail curing lamps
Metal halide lamps
Printing ink polymerizing equipment
Counterfeit currency detectors
Some UV exposure is essential for good health. It stimulates vitamin D production in the body. In medical practice, one example is UV lamps can be used for treating psoriasis (a condition causing itchy, scaly red patches on the skin).
Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation is associated with different types of skin cancer, sunburn, accelerated skin aging, as well as cataracts and other eye diseases. The severity of the effect depends on the wavelength (see Figure 2), intensity, and duration of exposure.
The shortwave UV radiation (UV-C) poses the maximum risk. The sun emits UV-C but it is absorbed in the ozone layer of the atmosphere before reaching the earth. Therefore, UV-C from the sun does not affect people. Some man-made UV sources also emit UV-C. However, the regulations concerning such sources restrict the UV-C intensity to a minimal level and may have requirements to install special guards or shields and interlocks to prevent exposure to the UV.
The medium wave UV (UV-B) causes skin burns, erythema (reddening of the skin) and darkening of the skin. Prolonged exposures increase the risk of skin cancer.
Longwave UV radiation (UV-A) accounts for up to 95% of the UV radiation that reaches the earth's surface. Although UV-A is less intense than UV-B, it is more prevalent and can penetrate deeper into the skin layers, affecting the connective tissue and blood vessels, which results in premature aging.
Certain chemicals and medications act as photosensitizing agents and enhance the effect of UV radiation from sunlight or other sources. Such agents include thiazide diuretics (drugs which cause excessive urine production), drugs used in the treatment of high blood pressure, certain antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides), cosmetics, and thiazine tranquilizers.
These are just a few examples; this is not intended to be a comprehensive list. However, it is important to know that these photosensitizing effects can occur in case people are exposed to UV radiation at work. For example, an inexperienced welder, who was taking a phenothiazine anti-depressant drug, suffered damage in both eyes in the part of the retina that absorbs short wavelength light (bilateral maculopathy). He began complaining of eye problems a day after he was arc welding for two minutes without wearing any eye protection. This damage, that fortunately was reversible after several months, occurred because the drug he was taking sensitized him to the UV radiation to which he was exposed.
Various plants such as carrot, celery, dill, fig, lemon and some types of weeds are known to cause photosensitivity. Exposure to fluids from these plants, especially if crushed, followed by exposure to sunlight can cause dermatitis. Citrus fruit handlers and vegetable harvesters, gardeners, florists and bartenders are at risk for experiencing dermatitis following exposure to certain plants and then to sunlight (phytophotodermatitis).
Coal tar and creosote are examples of photosensitizing agents in the workplace.
Effects of repeated exposures (chronic effects) include skin aging and skin cancer. There is a strong causal link between skin cancer and prolonged exposure to solar UV and from artificial sources.
The eyes are particularly sensitive to UV radiation. Even a short exposure of a few seconds can result in a painful, but temporary condition known as photokeratitis and conjunctivitis. Photokeratitis is a painful condition caused by the inflammation of the cornea of the eye. The eye waters and vision is blurred. Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva (the membrane that covers the inside of the eyelids and the sclera, the white part of the eyeball); (see Figure 3) which becomes swollen and produces a watery discharge. It causes discomfort rather than pain and does not usually affect vision.
Examples of eye disorders resulting from UV exposure include "flash burn", "ground-glass eye ball", "welder's flash" and "snow blindness" - depending on the source of the UV light causing the injury. The symptoms are pain, discomfort similar to the feeling of sand in the eye and an aversion to bright light.
The eyes are most sensitive to UV radiation from 210 nm to 320 nm (UV-C and UV-B). Maximum absorption by the cornea occurs around 280 nm. Absorption of UV-A in the lens may be a factor in producing cataract (a clouding of the lens in the eye).
The intensity of UV radiation is measured in the units of milliwatts per square centimetre (mW/cm2) which is energy per square centimetre received per second. Also, it is measured in the units of millijoules per square centimetre (mJ/cm2), which is energy received per unit area in a given time.
A variety of instruments are commercially available for measuring UV radiation in the laboratory and in the workplace. Specifications and purchasing information can be obtained from suppliers of workplace monitoring equipment.
Many jurisdictions follow the limits recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH, 2022).
For the UV-A (315 to 400 nm), exposure to the eye should not exceed 1 milliwatt per square centimetre (1.0 mW/cm2) for periods greater than 1000 seconds (approximately 17 minutes). Additional exposure limits apply to the amount of UV light exposure to the skin and the eyes. The amount of UV exposure a person can receive on their skin or eyes during an 8-hour period varies with the wavelength of the UV radiation. For specifics or other limits, please consult the Ultraviolet Radiation section of the current edition of the ACGIH publication Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices®.
UV radiation is invisible and therefore does not stimulate the natural defences of the eyes. Workers must use eye and skin protection while working with UV radiation sources which present the potential for eye harmful exposure. The selection of eye protection depends on the type and intensity of the UV source. For more information consult CSA Standard (CAN/CSA-Z94.3 2020) Eye and Face Protectors.
UV radiation is easily absorbed in a variety of materials. Shielding is usually easy to design. Mercury lamps and metal halide lamps have an outer glass cover to stop UV radiation, and are designed such that if the outer glass is broken, the lamp ceases to function.
For information on how to protect yourself from ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, please see the OSH Answers Skin Cancer and Sunlight.