Health and Safety ReportVolume 12, Issue 7

Tips and Tools

Lyme Disease: A Warm Weather Hazardprint this article

In Canada, being able to work outside during the summer months is a welcomed opportunity for many workers to enjoy the warmer temperatures, spend more time outdoors, and to work closer to nature. However, working outside can bring an increased risk of exposure to the growing health threat posed by Lyme disease.

Lyme borreliosis or "Lyme disease" is a tick-borne illness caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria. This bacterium is hosted primarily by small rodents, and is passed to humans by the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Ticks cannot fly - they hang onto small bushes or tall grasses and are usually found close to the ground. They wait for an animal or person to pass near them and when they make contact, the ticks attach themselves to the skin to feed. High risk areas in Canada include southern British Columbia, southeastern and south-central Manitoba, southern and eastern Ontario, southern Quebec, southern New Brunswick, and parts of Nova Scotia, usually in forested and overgrown areas. Your risk of a tick bite is highest in the spring and summer months. However, these insects can be active throughout much of the year.

Signs and symptoms

Because the ticks are small, their bites are usually painless, and you may not know you've been bitten. With Lyme disease on the rise, it's important to be on the lookout for ticks and to know the signs and symptoms of the disease.

The symptoms and severity of Lyme disease can vary from person to person. A circular rash, often referred to as a "bull's eye" rash because it will have rings spreading from the bite site, may appear three days to a month after infection. The appearance of this rash is a sure sign of a tick bite. If you have this rash or any other symptoms of Lyme disease, you should see a doctor and explain that you have been in an area where you may have been exposed to ticks.

Others symptoms include:

  • fatigue

  • fever or chills

  • headache

  • muscle spasms or weakness

  • numbness or tingling

  • swollen lymph nodes

  • difficulty thinking or remembering, or dizziness

  • joint pain

  • abnormal heart beat

What to do if you find a tick

Ticks generally take 24 hours or longer after they contact the body to begin feeding. Remove ticks within 24-36 hours to reduce your risk of infection with Lyme disease.

  • Using needle-nose tweezers, firmly grasp the tick, as close to your skin as possible. Pull the tick away from your skin with a steady motion without squeezing or twisting it as this can cause the harmful bacteria to be released into the body. Clean the area with soap and water.
  • Avoid handling ticks with bare hands. Use disposable gloves, paper toweling or tweezers.

  • After handling ticks, discard gloves and paper toweling, and wash hands and tweezers thoroughly.

  • Save the tick for testing. Put it in a sealed container or double zip lock bag. Bring the tick to your doctor or your local health unit office to be sent for testing for Lyme disease.

  • Wash and dry work clothes in a hot dryer to kill any ticks present.

What employers can do

  • Provide workers with training about Lyme disease: how it's spread, the risks of exposure and infection, how they can protect themselves from ticks, and why it is important to report all tick bites and related illnesses.

  • Recommend that workers wear light-coloured clothing: long-sleeved shirts, long pants tucked into their socks, and a hat when possible.

  • Provide workers with repellents containing 20-30% DEET or Icaridin to use on their skin and clothing for protection against ticks.

  • When possible, have workers avoid working at sites with woods, bushes, tall grass and leaf litter.

  • If work in these higher-risk areas can't be avoided, try to reduce the tick populations with landscape management including: removing leaf litter, cutting back grass and brush, controlling the rodent and small mammal populations, and discouraging deer activity.

What workers can do

  • Wear closed-toe shoes, long sleeved shirts, and pants.

  • Pull socks over pant legs to prevent ticks from crawling up the legs.

  • Wear light-coloured clothing to make spotting ticks easier.

  • Use an insect/tick repellent that contains DEET or Icaridin. Follow the manufacturer's directions for use.

  • Shower or bathe within two hours of being outdoors to wash away loose ticks.

  • Perform a complete body inspection after being in an area where ticks may live. Check for ticks on and under clothing, plus the armpits, in and around the scalp and hair, navel, groin, and behind the ears and knees.

Additional information and resources

Lyme Disease fact sheet, CCOHS

Lyme Disease, Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)

Lyme disease, Healthy Canadians, Government of Canada

Lyme disease prevention and control: the way forward, Canada Communicable Disease Report, PHAC

Groundskeepers Safety Guide, CCOHS

Lyme Disease, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Partner News

A Safe Start for New and Young Workersprint this article

Starting a new job can be exciting, but it can also carry the risk of being injured, especially for new and young workers. This group is more likely to be injured during the first month of employment than at any other time. As part of ongoing efforts to address this issue, the Ontario Ministry of Labour is focussing on the safety of new and young workers during a four-month enforcement blitz across the province.

Since May, Ministry of Labour inspectors have been checking to see that employers are in compliance with Ontario's Occupational Health and Safety Act with a special focus on the safety of new and young workers. Inspectors will be checking that these workers meet minimum age requirements, are being instructed, trained and supervised on the job, and that they are following required safety measures and procedures to prevent injuries.

Inspectors are focusing on industrial sector workplaces where many new and young workers are employed, including the service, manufacturing, transportation, logging, landscaping, arborists, hotel and motel industries. Health care inspectors are focussing their efforts on community care services and residences.

Young workers are those aged 14 to 24. New workers are those who have been on the job for less than six months, or have been assigned to a new job. These new workers include young workers plus those older than 25 years.

More information and resources

Backgrounder: New and Young Worker Safety Focus of Blitz, Ontario Ministry of Labour

WorkSmartOntario website, Ontario Ministry of Labour

Young Workers Zone, CCOHS

Help Your New Workers Stay Safe, free webinar, CCOHS

Orientation on Health and Safety for New Workers e-course, CCOHS

On Topic

Endangered Spaces: The Traditional Officeprint this article

Cubicles, commuting, colleagues: just some of the typical features of the traditional office environment. But by taking advantage of technological advances, small businesses, start-ups, freelancers and teleworkers are changing the image of where work is being performed. Home offices and cafes have established themselves as popular non-traditional work settings, but now there's a third option that's entered the picture: coworking spaces. Learn more about this innovative and collaborative concept, and how to keep these spaces healthy and safe.

What is coworking?

You try working from home, but the distractions make it hard to maintain focus on the task at hand. So you take your laptop to the local coffee shop but after a few visits, you're maxed out on caffeine and feeling achy and cramped from sitting at a tiny café table for hours on end. For a growing number of workers, coworking is the ideal alternative.

A coworking facility has all the features of a regular office, such as work desks, conference rooms, kitchen area, photocopiers and WiFi, but instead of housing a single company or organization, multiple workers from different businesses share the space and resources. This arrangement often results in reduced operating costs and provides workers with the opportunity to network, collaborate and socialize with their fellow coworkers.

Coworking is suitable for individuals who work for themselves or largely on their own as part of an organization, but don't want to be physically isolated or work alone. Membership options are usually flexible, with drop-in and monthly or annual membership plans. The first space opened in San Francisco in 2005, and the concept has become a global movement with over 2500 spaces worldwide. In Canada, there are now more than 80 coworking spaces that could potentially accommodate hundreds of workers on any given day.

Health and safety considerations

Many coworking spaces make concerted efforts to not resemble a traditional office. It's not unusual to come across comfortable furniture, lounges, fountains, or even a rooftop garden. However, safe workplace practices still need to be made a priority, for the health and well-being of the coworkers using the spaces.

Canadian employers, regardless of where their workers are located, are obligated under the Occupational Health and Safety Act to keep their workers safe. However, many coworkers are self-employed. It is therefore recommended that coworking spaces implement a health and safety program that applies to the whole space, keeping in mind that they must ensure their facility complies with the rules and regulations in their jurisdiction that pertain to minimum health, safety, housing and maintenance standards. As part of their orientation to the space, all new coworking members should be given an overview of health and safety procedures and guidelines.

Here are just some examples of the range of health and safety considerations for coworking spaces. Other considerations include slips, trips and falls, electrical safety, lighting, noise and more.

Avoid pains and strains

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a group of common, painful injuries and ailments that can affect the muscles, nerves and tendons mostly in the back, legs, shoulders, neck, wrists, hands and joints. Common symptoms include pain, joint stiffness, muscle weakness, redness, swelling, numbness and tingling. These injuries can be caused by work involving repetitive motion, forceful movements, and fixed or awkward body postures that are held for long periods of time. For coworkers whose jobs involve a lot of time spent on their computers, some possible causes of MSDs are:

  • The monitor, work surface, or chair are too high or too low

  • Poor posture

  • Prolonged sitting or standing in one position

  • Incorrect hand positioning

  • Contact stress with a hard surface

  • Too much or too little light

Coworking spaces can assist by:

  • Investing in adjustable furniture that accommodates a variety of individuals

  • Providing footrests, wrist rests and document holders

  • Installing ambient lighting, and using low reflective finishes and neutral colours on walls and furniture

  • Encouraging coworkers to take stretch and exercise breaks; post cards and hang up posters of sample exercises

Be sensitive to scents

Scents are found in many products that we use every day including soaps, detergents, household cleaners and personal care products. For workers with scent sensitivities, however, the fragrance may come with unpleasant health effects. This situation can create a challenge in coworking spaces where people interact, share resources, and welcome visitors. Some workplaces promote the arm's length rule: that no scent should be detectable at more than an arm's length from the individual. Others are going one step further and adopting a scent-free policy for their workplace.

Workplace violence and personal security

Wherever people interact there is always the potential for an act of violence, and a coworking space is no exception. Facilities are usually open 24 hours a day, leaving plenty of time for coworkers to be potentially working alone, or at high risk times of day (late at night and early morning). Violent behaviours can include everything from physical acts of violence to malicious gossip. Create a definition of workplace violence that is specific to your space. When developing a violence prevention policy or program, consider the physical layout of the workplace and the use of signs, locks, lighting, access cards, and surveillance tools. Review the hours of operation and staffing levels, and setup check-in and check-out procedures.

Prepare for an emergency

Like any other organization, a coworking space needs to be ready for an emergency. There are several key areas to focus on in order to be prepared for the unexpected:

  • Identify potential emergencies specific to your community and region. The Canadian Disaster Database references all types of disasters.

  • Post local emergency contact information (fire, police, hospital) and locations, including maps.

  • Prepare an emergency evacuation plan.

  • Identify and locate assembly areas.

  • Keep emergency and first aid kits in easy-to-reach places, and inspect them regularly.

  • Post and practice your emergency evacuation procedures.

  • Collect and update medical and emergency contact information for each new coworking member.

Check whether any coworking members have medical or first aid training, and always ensure that a person qualified to deal with a medical emergency is always on site or readily accessible. One way to increase your space's ability to deal with an emergency is to offer CPR and first aid training and half-yearly refresher training to coworking staff, plus the rest of the coworking community.

The spaces we occupy can influence the way we think, how well we work, and our overall health and well-being. For a growing number of Canadians the advantages of a collaborative and connected coworking space are winning over the traditional office. It's important for coworking spaces to foster this sense of community by looking after the safety and wellbeing of the coworkers that contribute to it.

CCOHS Resources

Workplace Health & Safety Matters

Leading the Way for Leaders of Tomorrowprint this article

Workplace Health and Safety Matters is the blog of Steve Horvath, President and CEO of the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. In a recent blog post, Steve shared his thoughts on various initiatives focused on young worker health and safety.

We have seen a decline in workplace injury rates among 15 - 19 years old across Canada, which I believe is due, in part, to efforts to incorporate young worker awareness and education programs into the regular education curriculum.
The last few weeks have underscored some of our efforts in developing our youth to be future leaders in health and safety. First, on behalf of our Council of Governors, CCOHS has awarded its 12th annual Dick Martin Scholarship, a national award to recognize students enrolled in a Canadian occupational health and safety degree or diploma program, and to encourage their pursuit of a career in workplace health and safety. Congratulations to this year's deserving winners: Jodie Chadbourn (Ontario) and Kathy Lee (Saskatchewan), who each received $3000. Their academic institutions, the University of New Brunswick and the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology, also each received $500.

In addition, CCOHS continues to support the annual "It's Your Job" youth video contest. All Canadian secondary school students begin their competition through provincial and territorial contests administered by their respective ministries and departments of labour. They are challenged to use their creativity to develop an original video that can be used in social media to communicate with their peers about working safely on the job. The winners in each jurisdiction then compete at a national level contest.

Congratulations to this year's national winners:

  • First place: Ben Croskery, John McCrae Secondary School, Ottawa, ON

  • Second place: Pranay Noel, St. Francis Xavier Catholic Secondary School, Mississauga, ON

  • Third place: Dane Cutliffe, Colonel Gray High School, PEI

  • Fan Favourite: Dylan Pappenfoot, Logan Seipp and Dylan Stadnyk, Humboldt Collegiate Institute, Humboldt, SK

As well, I am co-chair of the World Congress on Safety and Health at Work's symposium on "Creating a Safe and Healthy Learning and Working Environment" which integrates workplace, community and education groups toward our common goal of developing a young worker safety culture. In that role I also have the privilege of welcoming the delegates from the International Youth Congress - attending from around the world - to the 2014 World Congress next month in Frankfurt, Germany.

Here at CCOHS, in the past couple of decades, we have focused on programs to empower youth in creating a new generation of workplaces that embrace a culture of prevention. But success cannot be achieved in isolation, so our continued efforts to promote and coordinate a holistic approach to young worker safety will integrate with the efforts of workplace, community and education institutions. Together, we head toward the common goal of creating a culture of prevention in all workplaces.

Read Steve's blog, Workplace Health and Safety Matters.


Podcasts: Lifejackets and Personal Flotation Devicesprint this article

This month's Health and Safety To Go! podcasts share timely information about lifejackets and personal flotation devices, and feature an encore on lightning safety.

Feature Podcast: Stay Afloat with Lifejackets and Personal Flotation Devices

According to the Canadian Red Cross, wearing a lifejacket could eliminate up to 90% of all boating-related drownings. CCOHS discusses the difference between lifejackets and personal flotation devices, and how to use them safely.

The podcast runs 6:07 minutes. Listen to the podcast now.

Encore Podcast: Lightning Safety

CCOHS discusses how to stay safe while working outdoors during a lightning storm.

The podcast runs 5:17 minutes. Listen to the podcast now.

CCOHS produces free monthly podcasts on a wide variety of topics designed to keep you current with information, tips, and insights into the health, safety, and well-being of working Canadians. You can download the audio segment to your computer or MP3 player and listen to it at your own convenience... or on the go!

Better yet, subscribe to the series on iTunes and don't miss a single episode.

Tell us what you think.
We welcome your feedback and story ideas.

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