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Workplace psychosocial factors are an aspect of the workplace that is developed by the culture, policies, expectations, and social attitude of the organization.
Thirteen psychosocial risk factors have been identified by researchers at Simon Fraser University based on research and review of empirical data from national and international best practices. The same 13 factors are used in the CSA Standard “Z1003-13 - Psychological health and safety in the workplace - Prevention, promotion, and guidance to staged implementation” which is available for free from their website. A summary of these factors is available in the OSH Answers on Mental Health - Psychological Risk Factors in the Workplace.
If there is not a match between the work demands and mechanisms in place to help the worker meet these demands, the worker may experience stress induced responses that can contribute to poor mental/psychological or physical health. The stress reaction may also contribute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders.
Some examples of workplace psychosocial factors include:
When workplace psychosocial factors place demands on workers that are greater than the worker's ability to cope with them, they experience stress. Stress creates a wide variety of physiological, psychological and behavioural responses within a person.
Behavioural responses to psychosocial factors are responses taken by a person that they are unaware of, or that they perceive may help them cope with the stresses placed upon them. Unfortunately, in many cases these responses can actually increase their risk of developing MSDs because it causes them to increase their physical and psychological exposure to some MSD risk factors. Below are several examples:
The general stress response is based upon how the stress is perceived by the individual. Although there are several theories, the general stress response can generally be sub-divided into two categories - positive and negative. A positive stress response is one that is associated with stressors that are surmountable or achievable. They are challenges that we believe we can accomplish and with that comes a general sense of engagement, determination, and interest.
Negative stress responses are associated with challenges that we believe we cannot accomplish. They are associated with feelings such as uncertainty, disinterest, boredom, and anxiety. When discussing the workplace, these negative stresses are linked to the psychosocial factors mentioned above: lack of job control, excessive job demands, low job satisfaction, and lack of social support.
The physiological changes that people experience due to stress are intended to prepare a person to physically resolve dangers, problems, or challenges in the short-term time range. When the challenge has been resolved, the stress response in the body shuts down. Similarly when the challenge has not been resolved, these physiological changes are sustained and the body remains in "stress mode".
In most cases, when stress is caused by workplace psychosocial factors, these issues cannot normally be resolved by a one-time stress induced response by the body. In these cases, workplace psychosocial factors will cause the body to be stuck in “stress mode”.
There are three primary hormones released into the blood stream during a stress response. These are epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol. The bodyâ€™s reaction to stress is to release these hormones in various proportions based upon how the stress is perceived (positive or negative) to create the following physiological responses in the body:
Directly attributing workplace psychosocial factors as a cause of workplace musculoskeletal disorders is difficult because of the number of other factors (biomechanical) that also contribute to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. However, there is general consensus that workplace psychosocial factors can contribute a significant risk to workers. Some of the main theories linking stress induced physiological changes to musculoskeletal disorders is presented in the table below.
|Physiological Change||How MSD risk has increased|
|Increased blood pressure||In joints where space is at a premium (example - carpal tunnel), a consistent increase in blood pressure could lead to increased pressure in the joint specifically on tendons, ligaments, and nerves.|
|Increased fluid pressure||When fluid pressure is increased for a prolonged period of time, increased pressure may be placed in joints, and on tendons, ligaments, and nerves.|
|Reduction of growth functions||Reduction of the production of collagen (a growth function) means reduced ability for the body to heal or recover after performing work functions.|
|Decreased sensitivity to pain||When pain is not sensed as clearly, workers may work beyond and above their body's physical capacity.|
|Dilation of pupils||Increased sensitivity to light.|
|Increase in muscle tension||Causes increase in pressure on and around joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and may cause excessive use of force during certain activities and movements.|
|Body remains at a heightened state of sensitivity||Because of heightened sensitivity and alertness, person may overburden their musculoskeletal system (lift more, work faster, etc.)|